Ivan Kragoff was a Russian scientist and devoted member of Leviathan who studied the effects of Cosmic Rays on the human body circa the early 1950's, based on research that was conducted on the super soldier program by Abraham Erskine. Kragoff not only sought to replicate the conditions that gave Captain America his powers, but to also increase these abilities. Building a device that would release more radiation from vita rays from a surge of Cosmic Rays, Ivan prepared to use three apes as test subjects. After the experiment, not only did Ivan received powers but the apes did as well. He later gained the name Red Ghost and led the apes in Leviathan's quest. He was defeated by Agent Carter in battle, and locked up by S.H.I.E.L.D. in prison, where he met up with Leviathan's former head, Johann Fenhoff, and helped form HYDRA from within SHIELD with the guidance of Arnim Zola.